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Hardinge Britten, Emma (London 1823 - Manchester 1899)
Institution / Country:England and USA

From: Perry Rabbitts's emmahardinge.net:
Emma Hardinge was one of the most powerfully gifted speakers of spiritual philosophy. In 1865, she visited England and gave seven weekly addresses in answer to questions posed by an audience of scientists, intellectuals and thinkers of the day who were interested in Spiritualism. Miss Hardinge spoke, without preparation, in a semi-trance state being guided and influenced in her speaking by spirits whom she recognised.

Note: You will find on this web site the original text of 'Philosophy of Spiritualism'.

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From Wikipedia:
Emma Hardinge Britten (1823-1899) is known for her work as an advocate for the early Modern Spiritualist Movement. Due to the publication of her speeches and writing on the spiritual movement, and an incomplete autobiography which was edited by her sister, much of Emma’s life and work is publicly recorded. She is remembered as a writer, orator, and practitioner of the movement. Her books, Modern American Spiritualism (1870) and Nineteenth Century Miracles (1884), are some of the greatest records of the history of early modern spiritualism movement in America.

She is credited with defining the seven principles of Spiritualism which, with minor changes, are still in use today by the Spiritualists' National Union in the United Kingdom. They are:
The Fatherhood of God.
The Brotherhood of Man.
The Communion of Spirits and the Ministry of Angels.
The Continuous Existence of the Human Soul.
Personal Responsibility.
Compensation and Retribution hereafter for all the good and evil deeds done on earth.
Eternal Progress open to every human soul.
(In the Spiritualist tradition, it is also proper to acknowledge the "Motherhood of God and the Sisterhood of Man".)

Source of Photo: National Library of Australia